OMNIPOTENT MAIS IMPUISSANT

Macky Sall concentre entre ses mains plus de pouvoirs que ses prédécesseurs, depuis le retour au multipartisme en 1974.

Après sa réélection controversée en février 2019, il a supprimé le poste de Premier ministre, pour prétextait-il, plus d’efficacité dans la mise en œuvre de son agenda économique. Las, l’année 2019 fut une « année blanche et sèche ». Ses plus dévoués avocats en conviennent sans peine. A l’intérieur de son parti comme dans l’administration, nul ne peut plus se hasarder à le contredire. Le Président était déjà, avant la pandémie qui fait trembler le monde, au faite de sa puissance.

Face à cette crise majeure, Macky Sall n’utilisa pas ses pouvoirs exorbitants pour anticiper, agir et circonscrire les dimensions sanitaire, sociale et économique du fléau. Ses décisions ont jusqu’ici été de plusieurs longueurs de retard sur les risques réels. A titre d’exemple, les contrôles aux frontières furent laxistes pendant que des pays comme la Mauritanie, le Maroc ou la Tunisie, anticipant relativement tôt le péril Covid19 qui déferlait sur l’Europe, ont pris des décisions à la hauteur de la menace. Le Sénégal lui ne se résoudra à fermer ses frontières que lorsqu’il apparut que le nouveau corona virus avait frayé son chemin dans le pays. Eût-il à l’époque réuni et écouté des experts, au-delà de son cercle restreint où aucune voix dissonante n’ose se faire entendre, qu’il aurait pu aujourd’hui limiter l’ampleur des restrictions drastiques imposées aux citoyens, qui ne sauraient produire des effets que pour autant qu’elles restent circonscrites dans des délais raisonnables. De plus, il aurait certainement profité de la période de janvier à février pour lancer des commandes de matériels et préparer le pays à la pandémie. Son gouvernement s’est contenté du minimum de service (quelques caméras thermiques à Diass, des numéros d’urgence et la communication). Il ne songea pas à l’époque à mettre en place des procédures pour le confinement et le suivi des voyageurs, notamment ceux en provenance des zones où le virus circulait largement. Le réveil après les premiers cas au début du mois de mars fut brutal et les premières mesures prises, quoique spectaculaires, ne devraient circonscrire une crise sérieuse si elle devait survenir.

Ainsi, l’établissement de l’état d’urgence couplé à un couvre-feu apparaît plus comme une vaste entreprise de communication qu’un processus effectif d’endiguement du mal avant qu’il ne prenne souche.

D’abord le timing de cet état d’urgence, au lendemain de différentes manifestations religieuses dont les organisateurs n’entendaient nullement se soumettre aux édits de Macky Sall. Le Président dut dépêcher des émissaires secrets négocier au cas par cas à travers le Pays. Ainsi, pour vaincre la réticence de Touba, Macky Sall envoya en agneau du sacrifice son ex Premier ministre, faire exactement ce que le Gouvernement interdisait, non sans raison. Jamais l’Etat ne parut si faible, alors que le Président concentre théoriquement plus de pouvoirs que ses prédécesseurs. 

Ensuite, quelle est l’efficacité réelle d’un couvre-feu sur un virus dont il n’est pas prouvé qu’il soit un organisme nocturne ? Le couvre-feu et le blocus imposé entre les différentes régions du Sénégal n’empêchent pas les marchés de Dakar et d’ailleurs de grouiller de monde le jour, souvent plus qu’à l’accoutumée. Les bidonvilles des banlieues restent également des zones de fortes concentrations humaines, propices à une propagation fulgurante de germes pour peu qu’on leur donne la chance de s’y introduire. Cela les décrets n’y changeront rien. Les caractéristiques de notre économie et de notre organisation sociale appellent des solutions sur mesure, pour autant qu’un leadership lucide et imaginatif soit aux commandes.

En effet, ce qu’attendent les personnels soignants, ce sont des moyens à la mesure du mal. Pour l’instant on ne voit pas un plan clair pour doter, dans des délais appropriés, ces personnels des équipements nécessaires individuels et collectifs en suffisance, sauver du naufrage un système sanitaire en péril, et surtout, projeter sur l’ensemble du territoire une capacité de détection et d’endiguement du mal. Il est par exemple des décisions simples, qui ne coûtent rien à la communauté, qui auraient notablement pu améliorer la capacité de riposte des personnels soignants et des forces de sécurité : dissoudre le Haut conseil des collectivités locales et le Conseil économique social et environnemental, mettre leurs parcs de véhicules, leurs immeubles et leurs ressources financières à la disposition des personnels en première ligne de la guerre contre le nouveau Corona virus.

En revanche, les décisions prises, y compris celles qui s’avèrent inévitables, ont des incidences sérieuses sur une économie qui n’a jamais été brillante et qui subit les contrecoups de la crise mondiale. Des milliers d’actifs, dont la précarité a toujours été le lot, se sont trouvés privés du jour au lendemain de leurs sources de revenus. La liste est longue, mais on peut mentionner pour en esquisser le spectre les tailleurs, les chauffeurs interurbains, les acteurs culturels, les tenanciers de divers commerces dans les universités et les écoles, marchands ambulants, les enseignants payés à l’heure. Au secours de tous ceux-là, il faut imaginer des programmes dédiés et en urgence.

L’imagination de Macky Sall est de se conférer les rares pouvoirs qu’il ne détenait pas encore : ceux de faire directement la loi, sans dorénavant faire semblant de passer par un Parlement qui ne lui a jamais rien refusé de toute façon.

Macky Sall jouit donc de pouvoirs démesurés, comme Rodrigo Dutertre des Philippines ou Viktor Orbàn de la Hongrie. Des chefs d’état qui comme certaines cellules malignes, profitent d’un moment de faiblesse du corps social, pour étendre leur emprise, pour la seule satisfaction de leurs égos. L’excès de pouvoirs, qui sécrète l’ivresse de puissance, n’a jamais produit que des désastres : inutile d’aller loin dans le temps ou l’espace pour vérifier cette loi éternelle :  l’Histoire présente et récente de l’Afrique en témoigne à suffisance. Il est à craindre que Macky Sall ne se soit choisi cette destinée. A présent qu’il a tous les pouvoirs, qu’est-ce que cela change-t-il vraiment dans la guerre contre le Codid19 ? Or la pandémie a révélé des compétences sénégalaises étouffées derrière la nomenklatura de l’APR, autant de l’administration publique que des structures privées. Justement, pour trouver les meilleures solutions à la crise dans ses aspects multidimensionnels (social, sanitaire, économique) et préparer le Sénégal aux jours d’après, aucune compétence ne serait de trop. Les voies de sortie de cette catastrophe inédite aux manifestations ne peuvent être définies par quelques éminences calfeutrées dans les lambris des bureaux présidentiels. Les dirigeants des pays en premiers lignes, qu’ils s’appellent Xi-Jinping, Emmanuel Macron ou Donald Trump, ont été contraints par le péril à renoncer à une bonne partie de leur omnipuissance pour s’entourer de compétences diverses et variées. Les vrais chefs le savent : par temps de guerre, aucun commandant en chef ne peut se passer d’un bon état-major.

Author: La Rédaction

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